These days, many users who upgrade their computers cite the reason why “to play games smoothly.” From some point on, ‘game’ has become the reason for the existence of computers, not the option to enjoy them incidentally.
Computer games are in line with the history of computers. The history of computer games is the history of computer games.
70’s to 90’s: Network Development and Game
Although many gamers think that online games have a short history, they have actually been developed since the early days of computer games. From the beginning, computer games were not designed to be enjoyed alone. The first computer game, “Tennis for Two,” was a one-screen game, and “Spacewar,” created by Steve Russell with his friends, was also a game in which two players torpedo each other in space. Early game developers also had the perception that games were not played alone (although it was difficult to develop artificial intelligence on computers).
The first online game was an online version of Spacewar developed by Rick Blomme in 1969. Spacewar, first announced by Steve Russell in 1961, has since been continuously improved by several developers, including Rick Bloom’s ability to enjoy on the network. Rick Bloom’s Space War is a game played on the Plato network (PLATO) developed by Professor Don Bitzer of the University of Illinois, which can be connected to Plato’s other computers.
Plato was developed for the computerization of education within the university, but students were more interested in games using the system. Developed in 1972, “Empire” is a game about Star Trek, a popular TV drama of the time, where up to 32 players could team up on a spaceship and share the planet’s resources and troops.
In 1973, David R. Woolley published a dialogue program called “Note”. Influenced by the software, a software called Talk-O-Matic was released for the Plato application. The program, which allows up to five people to enjoy chatting by randomly setting their names and gender, has since developed into IRC and became the beginning of online chatting.
The first Multi User Dungeon (MUD) game was developed in 1978 by Roy Tubshaw and Richard Bartle of the University of Essex for PDP-10. The game was later commercialized by Intercom under the name “Zork”.
The most important part of the history of network development is the Advanced Research Project Agency NETwork (ARPANET). ARPANET, which improved the Department of Defense (DOD) network developed during World War II to facilitate command and control of the military, was developed to transmit data per packet, allowing multiple people to send and receive data simultaneously on a single line. This method of data transfer has since been steadily improved and established as TCP/IP protocol in 1978. In 1983, the TCP/IP protocol was applied to all ARPANET computers, which opened the era of the 인터넷카지노.
However, it took a considerable amount of time for games using the Internet to become widely available to the general public. Although TCP/IP, a data transmission method, was groundbreaking, it was due to the lack of dissemination of network lines supporting it. ARPANET, which was installed mainly in universities, research institutes, and military institutions, was a pie in the sky for ordinary people who used PCs at home.
In the 1980s, networks using telephone lines, which were prevalent in ordinary households, began to emerge. It was able to transmit up to 64 kilobytes of data per second with a modem that converts analog signals sent through phone lines into digital signals. Considering the performance of PCs used at home at that time, it was not very slow, but the problem was the phone bill.
The high cost of using telephone lines was a headache until the late 1990s. Students working part-time jobs to cover the hundreds of dollars needed to play games even emerged as social problems. There was nothing different in Korea, so I could often see students who burned their parents’ hearts with phone bills worth hundreds of thousands of won.
Before Internet use became common, PC communication through telephone lines and modems was itself a Bulletin Board System (BBS). The first BBS was “Computer BBS” (CBBS) created by W. Christensen in the United States as a means of communication between his club members in 1978.
In Korea, the first BBS, ‘The First,’ was released in 1988. Since 1988, the number of private BBSs has begun to increase, starting with Empal BBS, which supports combinatorial/complete Hangul and multi-chat. Since then, corporate services such as Cheollian, Naunuri, and Hightel have begun in earnest, opening the heyday of domestic PC communication.
Most games from the 1970s to the early 80s using Telnet were mostly text-only, but later games were created using “ANSI Art”, a custom font supported on Telnet. Most of the games that were popular at that time were MUD games. Meanwhile, “TrPG” (Table-talk Role Playing Games) such as “Dungeons and Dragons” using bulletin boards and chat rooms were also very popular. These games, which are played only by dialogue between players under predetermined rules, were fully enjoyed by text alone.
In the late 1980s, games using graphics began to be released, away from text-oriented telnet. The first graphic-based online game was “Rabbit Jacks Cassino”, released for QuantumLink. In 1986, “Air Warrior” was released by Kesmai as the first multi-party online game (MMOG) based on World War II.
“Club Caribe”, released in 1988 by LucasArts for users of the Komodo 64 PC and Q-Link network, is the first interactive game to adopt a graphic character. Even though it was a very simple game, chatting using avatars and graphics was an innovative attempt at the time. The character Avatar, named after the main character of the “Ultima” series, later emerged as the epitome of the character representing users online.
Online games from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s did not make substantial progress. This was due to the collapse of 8-bit computers such as Apple and MSX, and 386 and 486 PCs with 16-bit became popular. DOS-based games were very vulnerable to network functionality. DOS did not support network functions such as TCP/IP, and most programs did not support graphics, even if they were connected to the network through Telnet programs, so it was only a picture-like representation of the text provided by ANSI. In order to support the network in games run on DOS, game developers had to create and insert programs separately, but considering the server operating costs, it was not paying off. Thus, a small number of games with network functionality were priced beyond imagination. Including the phone bill, it was natural for gamers to bend their backs.
Late 90’s~ Internet and online games.
The online game market took a new turn in 1996 when the Internet began to spread in earnest. The TCP/IP protocol, which was built into Windows 95, made it easy for anyone to access the Internet, and it was at this time that users who were fed up with slow phone lines began turning to high-speed networks such as ISDN. Another reason was that large game companies began to offer games that support TCP/IP at low prices without sparing development and server maintenance costs.
One of the first games to break the tape was “Quake” by Id software. Armed with excellent 3D graphics beyond the limits of hardware at the time and multi-play features that allow multiple people to easily access the Internet, the game continues to serve as a driving force for FPS games.
Blizzard’s “Warctaft” series and 3DO’s “Heroes of Might and Magic” brought about the heyday of online strategy simulation games.